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《室内空气质素指南

The Inside Story: A 《室内空气质素指南

介绍

室内空气质素问题

在日常生活中,我们所有人都面临着各种各样的健康风险. 驾驶汽车, 在飞机飞行, 从事娱乐活动, 暴露在环境污染物中都有不同程度的风险. 有些风险是无法避免的. Some we choose to accept because to do otherwise would restrict our ability to lead our lives the way we want. 如果我们有机会做出明智的选择,我们可能会决定避免一些风险. Indoor air pollution is one risk that you can do something about. 

在过去的几年里, 越来越多的科学证据表明,即使在最大和最工业化的城市,住宅和其他建筑内的空气污染可能比室外空气更严重. 其他研究表明,人们大约90%的时间是在室内度过的. 因此, 对许多人来说, 由于在室内暴露于空气污染,对健康的风险可能比在室外更大.

除了, 可能长时间接触室内空气污染物的人往往最容易受到室内空气污染的影响. 这类群体包括年轻人, 老年人, 而慢性病患者, especially those suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular disease.

为什么要编写室内空气安全指南?

While pollutant levels from individual sources may not pose a significant health risk by themselves, 大多数家庭有一个以上的来源,有助于室内空气污染. There can be a serious risk from the cumulative effects of these sources. 幸运的是, there are steps that most people can take both to reduce the risk from existing sources and to prevent new problems from occurring. 这份安全指南是由美国能源部起草的.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. 消费者产品安全委员会(CPSC)将协助你决定是否采取行动,以减少你家中的室内空气污染水平. 

因为很多美国人花了很多时间在有暖气设备的办公室里, 冷却, 和通风系统, 还有一小部分是欧博游戏平台办公室空气质量差的原因,以及如果你怀疑你的办公室可能有问题,你可以做些什么. A glossary and a list of organizations where you can get additional information are available in this document.

室内空气质量

是什么导致了室内空气问题?

Indoor pollution sources that release 气体es or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. 通风不足会增加室内污染物的水平,因为没有引入足够的室外空气来稀释室内源的排放,也没有将室内空气污染物带出家门. 高温和高湿度也会增加一些污染物的浓度.

污染物来源

There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. These include combustion sources such as oil, 气体, 煤油, 煤炭, 木, and tobacco products; building materials and 家具 as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing绝缘, 地毯受潮, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed 木 products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, 个人护理, or hobbies; central heating and 冷却 systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, 农药, 室外空气污染.

任何单一污染源的相对重要性取决于它排放了多少特定的污染物,以及这些排放有多危险. 在某些情况下, 诸如放射源的年龄以及它是否得到适当的欧博真人游戏等因素是很重要的. 例如, an improperly adjusted 气体 stove can emit significantly more carbon monoxide than one that is properly adjusted. 

有消息, 比如建筑材料, 家具, 和家用产品 like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. Other sources, related to activities carried out in the home, release pollutants intermittently. 这些包括吸烟, the use of unvented or malfunction-ing stoves, 炉, 或空间加热器, the use of solvents in cleaning and hobby activities, the use of paint strippers in redecorating activities, and the use of cleaning products and 农药 in housekeeping. High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities. 

的通风

如果进入家中的室外空气太少, 污染物积累到一定程度会对健康和舒适度造成影响. Unless they are built with special mechanical means of ventilation, 那些在设计和建造时尽量减少可能“泄漏”进或出家门的室外空气量的住宅,可能比其他住宅的污染水平更高. 然而, because some weather conditions can drastically reduce the amount of outdoor air that enters a home, pollutants can build up even in homes that are normally considered "leaky."

室外空气是如何进入房子的?

Outdoor air enters and leaves a house by: infiltration, 自然通风, 和机械通风. 这个过程被称为渗透, outdoor air flows into the house through openings, 关节, 墙壁上的裂缝, 地板, 和天花板, 窗户和门周围. In 自然通风, air moves through opened windows and doors. 与渗透和自然通风有关的空气流动是由室内外的空气温差和风引起的. 最后, there are a number of mechanical ventilation devices, from outdoor-vented fans that intermittently remove air from a single room, 比如浴室和厨房, 使用风扇和管道工作的空气处理系统,不断清除室内空气,并将过滤和调节的室外空气分配到整个房子的关键位置. 室外空气取代室内空气的速率称为空气交换率. 当没有渗透的时候, 自然通风, 或机械通风, the air exchange rate is low and pollutant levels can increase.

如果你住在公寓里怎么办?

Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, 如室内建筑材料, 家具, 和家用产品, 是相似的. Indoor air problems similar to those in offices are caused by such sources as contaminated ventilation systems, 室外进气口放置不当, 或欧博真人游戏活动.

Solutions to air quality problems in apartments, 就像在家里和办公室一样, involve such actions as: eliminating or controlling the sources of pollution, 增加通风, 安装空气净化装置. Often a resident can take the appropriate action to improve the indoor air quality by removing a source, 改变一个活动, 疏通送风口, or opening a window to temporarily increase the ventilation; in other cases, 然而, only the building owner or manager is in a position to remedy the problem. (见“如果你怀疑有问题怎么办”一节)你可以鼓励建筑管理人员遵循EPA和NIOSH的《建筑空气质量:建筑业主和设施管理者指南》中的指导. To obtain the looseleaf-fomat version of the Building 空气质量, 完整的附件, 一个索引, 还有一整套有用的表格, 新发布的, 建立空气质素行动计划, 订购2-4号GPO库存, 为28美元, 欧博真人游戏:文件主管, U.S. 政府印刷局,P.O. 信箱371954,匹兹堡,PA 15250-7954,或致电(202)512-1800,传真(202)512-2250.

改善你家的空气质量 

室内空气和你的健康

室内空气污染物可能在接触后不久就会对健康产生影响, 可能, 年后.

Immediate effects may show up after a single exposure or repeated exposures. 这些症状包括眼睛、鼻子和喉咙的刺激、头痛、头晕和疲劳. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person's exposure to the source of the pollution, 如果它能被识别出来. 某些疾病的症状, 包括哮喘, 过敏性肺炎, 和加湿器热, may also show up soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants.

对室内空气污染物立即反应的可能性取决于几个因素. Age and preexisting medical conditions are two important influences. 在其他情况下, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. 有些人在反复接触生物污染物后会对其敏感, 而且,有些人似乎也会对化学污染物敏感. 

某些直接影响类似感冒或其他病毒性疾病, so it is often difficult to determine if the symptoms are a result of exposure to indoor air pollution. 因此,重要的是要注意症状发生的时间和地点. If the symptoms fade or go away when a person is away from the home and return when the person returns, 应努力查明可能是原因的室内空气来源. 一些影响可能由于室外空气供应不足或暖气供应不足而变得更糟, 冷却, or humidity conditions prevalent in the home.

Other health effects may show up either years after exposure has occurred or only after long or repeated periods of exposure. 这些影响, 包括一些呼吸系统疾病, 心脏病, 和癌症, 会使人严重衰弱或致命吗. It is prudent to try to improve the indoor air quality in your home even if symptoms are not noticeable. More information on potential health effects from particular indoor air pollutants is provided in the section, “查看特定于源代码的控件."

而室内空气中常见的污染物会造成许多有害影响, there is considerable uncertainty about what concentrations or periods of exposure are necessary to produce specific health problems. People also react very differently to exposure to indoor air pollutants. 需要进行进一步的研究,以便更好地了解哪些健康影响发生在接触家庭中发现的平均污染物浓度之后,哪些健康影响发生在较短时间内的较高浓度之后.

与某些室内空气污染物有关的健康影响在“家庭主要室内空气污染物参考指南”一节中作了概述."

识别空气质素问题

一些健康影响可能是室内空气质量问题的有用指标, especially if they appear after a person moves to a new residence, 改造或重新装修一个家, 或者用杀虫剂来处理一个家庭. 如果你认为你的症状可能与你的家庭环境有关, discuss them with your doctor or your local health department to see if they could be caused by indoor air pollution. You may also want to consult a board-certified allergist or an occupational medicine specialist for answers to your questions. 

另一种判断你家是否有或可能出现室内空气问题的方法是识别潜在的室内空气污染源. Although the presence of such sources does not necessarily mean that you have an indoor air quality problem, being aware of the type and number of potential sources is an important step toward assessing the air quality in your home. 

A third way to decide whether your home may have poor indoor air quality is to look at your lifestyle and activities. Human activities can be significant sources of indoor air pollution. 最后, look for signs of problems with the ventilation in your home. Signs that can indicate your home may not have enough ventilation include moisture condensation on windows or walls, 有臭味或闷热的空气, dirty central heating and air 冷却 equipment, 和书籍的领域, 鞋子, 或者其他物品发霉. 检测你家的气味, 出去几分钟, 然后再回到你的家, 注意气味是否明显.

污染物浓度的测量

联邦政府建议你测量家里的氡水平. Without measurements there is no way to tell whether radon is present because it is a colorless, 没有气味的, 放射性气体. Inexpensive devices are available for measuring radon. 环境保护署就与不同暴露水平有关的风险以及公众何时应考虑采取纠正行动提供指导. There are specific mitigation techniques that have proven effective in reducing levels of radon in the home. (有关在家中测试和控制氡的更多信息,请参阅“氡”.)

对于氡以外的污染物, 当存在健康症状或通风不良迹象,并已确定特定来源或污染物为可能造成室内空气质量问题的原因时,测量是最适当的. Testing for many pollutants can be expensive. Before monitoring your home for pollutants besides radon, 咨询您所在州或当地的卫生部门,或有解决非工业建筑室内空气质量问题经验的专业人士.

改善你的家

The federal 政府ernment recommends that homes be weatherized in order to reduce the amount of energy needed for heating and 冷却. 当天气化正在进行时, 然而, 还应采取措施尽量减少来自家庭内部的污染. (See "改善你家的空气质量" for recommended actions.)除了, 居民应警惕通风不良迹象的出现, 比如空气不透气, 冷表面上的水汽凝结, 或发霉、发霉生长. Additional weatherization measures should not be undertaken until these problems have been corrected.

Weatherization generally does not cause indoor air problems by adding new pollutants to the air. (也有一些例外,比如填塞,有时会排放污染物.然而), measures such as installing storm windows, 挡风雨条, 填隙, 而吹入式墙体保温可以减少室外空气渗透到家中的量. 因此, 在恒温, 来自室内污染源的室内空气污染物浓度可能会增加.

三个基本策略

源控制

通常改善室内空气质量最有效的方法是消除个别污染源或减少其排放. 有消息, 比如那些含有石棉的, can be sealed or enclosed; others, 像燃气灶具, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. 在许多情况下, 污染源控制也是一种比增加通风更经济有效的保护室内空气质量的方法,因为增加通风会增加能源成本. 具体的室内空气污染的来源在您的家在本节后面列出. 

改善通风

另一个降低室内空气污染物浓度的方法是增加进入室内的室外空气量. 大多数家庭供暖和制冷系统, 包括强制空气加热系统, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. 打开门窗, 操作窗或阁楼风扇, 天气允许时, or running a window air conditioner with the vent control open increases the outdoor ventilation rate. 当地的卫生间或厨房风机,通过向室外排风,可直接将污染物从风机所在的房间中清除出去,同时增加室外空气的通风量.

例如,当你从事可能产生高水平污染物的短期活动时,尽可能多地采取这些步骤尤为重要, 绘画, 油漆剥离, 用煤油加热器加热, 烹饪, or engaging in maintenance and hobby activities such as welding, 焊接, 或砂光. You might also choose to do some of these activities outdoors, if you can and if weather permits.

Advanced designs of new homes are starting to feature mechanical systems that bring outdoor air into the home. Some of these designs include energy-efficient heat recovery ventilators (also known as air-to-air heat exchangers). For more information about air-to-air heat exchangers, 联络节约及可再生能源查询及转介服务, 邮政信箱3048, ·梅里菲尔德, VA 22116; (800) 523-2929. 

空气清洁剂

There are many types and sizes of air cleaners on the market, ranging from relatively inexpensive table-top models to sophisticated and expensive whole-house systems. Some air cleaners are highly effective at particle removal, 而其他的, 包括大多数桌面机型, 就不那么重要了. Air cleaners are generally not designed to remove 气体eous pollutants.

空气净化器的效果取决于它从室内空气中收集污染物的效果(以效率百分比表示)和它通过清洁或过滤元件吸进的空气量(以立方英尺/分钟表示). 一个非常高效的收集器,但空气循环率低,是无效的, 一个空气循环率高但效率较低的收集器也不会. The long-term performance of any air cleaner depends on maintaining it according to the manufacturer's directions.

Another important factor in determining the effectiveness of an air cleaner is the strength of the pollutant source. 桌面空气清洁剂, 特别是, 可能不能从附近的强污染源中去除满意数量的污染物. 对特定污染源敏感的人可能会发现,空气净化器只有在消除污染源的共同努力下才有帮助.

在过去的几年里, 有一些宣传表明,室内植物在实验室实验中被证明可以降低某些化学物质的含量. 目前还没有证据, 然而, that a reasonable number of houseplants remove significant quantities of pollutants in homes and offices. 室内盆栽植物不应浇水过多,因为过于潮湿的土壤可能会促进微生物的生长,从而影响过敏个体. 

目前, 美国环境保护署不建议使用空气净化器来降低氡及其衰变产物的水平. 这些装置的有效性尚不确定,因为它们只是部分地去除氡衰变产物,并没有减少进入家庭的氡量. EPA plans to do additional research on whether air cleaners are, 或可能成为, a reliable means of reducing the health risk from radon. 环境保护署的小册子, 住宅空气净化设备, 提供有关减少室内空气污染物的空气净化装置的进一步资料.

对于大多数家庭室内空气质量问题,源头控制是最有效的解决方案. 本节将逐源查看最常见的室内空气污染物, 它们对健康的潜在影响, 以及减少家庭摄入的方法. (For a summary of the points made in this section, 见“家居主要室内空气污染物参考指南”一节.") EPA has recently released, Ozone Generators That Are Sold As 空气清洁剂. 本文件(仅在本网站提供)的目的是提供有关在室内占用空间使用臭氧产生装置的准确信息. 这一信息是基于目前最可靠的科学证据.

美国环保署最近出版了《你应该清洁你家里的风管吗??EPA-402-K-97-002, 1997年10月. 本文档旨在帮助用户回答这个经常令人困惑的问题. The document explains what air duct cleaning is, 提供指导,帮助消费者决定是否在家中执行服务, and provides helpful information for choosing a duct cleaner, determining if duct cleaning was done properly, and how to prevent contamination of air ducts.

欲订购本小册子的印刷本,请发送您的出版请求:publications@cpsc.政府


Source: Consumer Product 安全 Commission
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