哮喘是一种严重的肺病. During an asthma attack, the airways get narrow, making it difficult to breathe. 症状 of asthma include wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 哮喘甚至会导致死亡.
If you have asthma or a child with asthma, you are not alone. 大约有1700万美国人患有哮喘. Asthma is the leading cause of long-term illness in children.
The air that children breathe can make a difference. Asthma may be triggered by allergens and irritants that are common in homes. 帮助你的孩子呼吸更轻松, consult a doctor and take precautions to reduce asthma triggers in your home.
二手烟. Asthma can be triggered by the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, 管, or cigar and the smoke breathed out by a smoker. Choose not to smoke in your home or car and do not allow others to do so either.
尘螨. 尘螨 are too small to be seen but are found in every home. 尘螨生活在床垫里, 枕头, 地毯, 家具表面, 被面, 衣服, 和填充玩具. Wash sheets and blankets once a week in hot water. Choose washable stuffed toys, wash them often in hot water, and dry thoroughly. 毛绒玩具不要放在床上. Cover mattresses and 枕头 in dust-proof (allergen-impermeable) zippered covers.
宠物. Your pet's skin flakes, urine, and saliva can be asthma triggers. Consider keeping pets outdoors or even finding a new home for your pets, if necessary. Keep pets out of the bedroom and other sleeping areas at all times, and keep the door closed. Keep pets away from 家具表面, 地毯, 和填充玩具.
模具. 霉菌在潮湿的材料上生长. 模具控制的关键是湿度控制. If mold is a problem in your home, clean up the mold and get rid of excess water or moisture. Lowering the moisture also helps reduce other triggers, such as dust mites and cockroaches. Wash mold off hard surfaces and dry completely. Absorbent materials, such as ceiling tiles and carpet, with mold may need to be replaced. Fix leaky plumbing or other sources of water. Keep drip pans in your air conditioner, refrigerator, and dehumidifier clean and dry. 使用 exhaust fans or open windows in kitchens and bathrooms when showering, 烹饪, 或者使用洗碗机. 把干衣机通风到外面. Maintain low indoor humidity, ideally between 30-50% relative humidity. Humidity levels can be measured by hygrometers which are available at local hardware stores.
害虫. Droppings or body parts of pests such as cockroaches or rodents can be asthma triggers. 不要把食物或垃圾留在外面. 将食物储存在密封容器中. Clean all food crumbs or spilled liquids right away. Try using poison baits, boric acid (for cockroaches), or traps first before using pesticidal sprays. If sprays are used, limit the spray to the infested area. 仔细按照标签上的说明操作. Make sure there is plenty of fresh air when you spray, and keep the person with asthma out of the room.
Not all of the asthma triggers addressed here affect every person with asthma. 并不是所有的哮喘诱因都列在这里. See your doctor or health care provider for more information.
Also, house dust may contain asthma triggers. 经常用湿布擦去灰尘, and vacuum carpet and 家具表面 to reduce dust build-up. Allergic people should leave the area being vacuumed. Using vacuums with high-efficiency filters or central vacuums may be helpful. When your local weather forecast announces an ozone action day, stay indoors as much as possible.
欲了解更多信息，请访问美国.S. 环境保护署, http://www.epa.gov/iaq or call EPA 室内空气质量 信息rmation Clearinghouse at (800) 438-4318 or the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma at (301) 592-8573.